<< SQLCODE | FB 2.5 Language Reference | UPDATING >>


Available in: PSQL

Added in: 2.5.1


In a WHEN ... DO error handler, the SQLSTATE context variable contains the 5-character, SQL-2003-compliant status code resulting from the statement that raised the error. Outside error handlers, SQLSTATE is always '00000'. Outside PSQL it is not available at all.

Type: CHAR(5)


 when any
    Msg = case sqlstate
          when '22003' then 'Numeric value out of range.'
          when '22012' then 'Division by zero.'
          when '23000' then 'Integrity constraint violation.'
          else 'Something bad happened! SQLSTATE = ' || sqlstate
    exception ex_custom Msg;


  • SQLSTATE is destined to replace SQLCODE. The latter is now deprecated in Firebird and will disappear in some future version.
  • Firebird does not (yet) support the syntax WHEN SQLSTATE ... DO. You have to use WHEN ANY and test the SQLSTATE variable within the handler.
  • Each SQLSTATE code is the concatenation of a 2-character class and a 3-character subclass. Classes 00 (successful completion), 01 (warning) and 02 (no data) represent completion conditions. Every status code outside these classes is an exception. Because classes 00, 01 and 02 don't raise an error, they won't ever show up in the SQLSTATE variable.
  • For a complete listing of SQLSTATE codes, consult the Appendix to the Firebird 2.5 Release Notes.

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