Service configuration

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Service configuration

The installation

The complete Firebird installation has a Firebird root directory with a number of subdirectories. The directory structure in Windows and Linux is identical.

Firebird root directory

Files (important files in bold):

aliases.confConfiguration file for database aliases.
firebird.confConfiguration file for the server.
firebird.logError protocol.
firebird.msgServer messages.
<rechnername>.lckLock file.
readme.txtService readme file.
security.fbkData backup of the security database.
security.fdbSecurity database: comprises user names and passwords.
License regulations for Firebird (Firebird is open source, the license allows free circulation and use, even for commercial purposes).

Windows bin subdirectory

fbclient.dllClient access library.
fbguard.exeThe Firebird Guardian service.
fbserver.exeThe actual Firebird database service.
gbak.exeGBAK tool for backup and restore.
gdef.exeGDML tool (outdated, no longer used).
gfix.exeGFIX tool: settings, repair, administration.
gpre.exeGPRE-Tool: C preprocessor.
gsec.exeGSEC tool: user administration.
gsplit.exeGSPLIT tool.
gstat.exeGSTAT tool: statistics.
icu*.dllDifferent libraries for the support of international character sets.
instclient.exeClient library installation as gds32.dll in Windows System directory (usually not necessary).
instreg.exeRegistration of an installation in the registry (only necessary when installing manually).
instsvc.exeTool for installing/deinstalling the service and for the start and shutdown pf the service (only necessary when installing by hand).
isql.exeISQL tool: Interactive execution of DDL and DML commands, execution of SQL scripts.
msvcp71.dllSystem DLL.
msvcr71.dllSystem DLL.
qli.exeInteractive GDML tool (out of date, no longer used).
nbackup.exeTool for incremental backups.

Linux bin subdirectory

SSchangeRunUser.shShell script for alterating the Superserver user.
SSrestoreRootRunUser.shShell script for restoring the Superserver user.
changeDBAPassword.shShell script for altering the SYSDBA password.
createAliasDB.shShell script for creating a new alias.
Invoke: ./ <aliasname> <datenbankname>
fb_configShell script containing sundry information.
Invoke: ./fb_config [options]
fb_lock_printShell script for the output of locking information.
fbguardFirebird Guardian demon.
fbmgrFirebird Manager for starting and shutting down the Firebird demon.
fbmgr.bin?Firebird Manager.
fbserverFirebird server demon.
gbakGBAK tool: backup, restore.
gdefGDML tool (out of date, no longer used).
gfixGFIX tool: settings, repair, adminstration.
gpreGPRE tool: C preprocessor.
gsecGSEC tool: user administration.
gstatGSTAT tool: statistics.
isqlISQL tool: interactive execution of DDL and DML commands, execution of SQL scripts.
qliInteractive GDML tool (out of date, no longer used).
nbackupTool for incremental backups.

Other subdirectories (both platforms)

docDocumentation, release notes, readmes, etc.
examplesSample programs and databases.
helpOnline help (currently practically empty).)
includeInclude files for the development of C-based client applications and UDFs.
intlInternational support.
libLibrary files for the development of C-based client applications and UDFs.
UDFUser-defined functions.

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The firebird.conf file, found in the Firebird root directory, can be edited in any Text Editor. Key parameters include:

DefaultDbCachePages = 2048Number of cached database pages per database.
RemoteServiceName = gds_db
RemoteServicePort = 3050
Name of the service in the services file and/or TCP port number for the service. This only needs to be altered if a Borland InterBase™ service is already running or potential confusion with InterBase is to be avoided.
DatabaseAccess = FullOnly accepts one of the following values:
* None: only databases listed in aliases.conf may be used.
* Full (Default): all databases may be used.
* Restrict: only databases found in the specified paths may be used. These paths must be specified in a semicolon-separated list (on Windows e.g. C:\DataBase;D:\Mirror, on Unix e.g. /db;/mnt/mirrordb).

Recommendation: We strongly recommend this parameter be used to restrict backdoor access to the system. Uncontrolled access to all databases can seriously endanger your system security.

See also:

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Database System Administrator SYSDBA

The user, SYSDBA (System Database Administrator) has Database Administrator status. He has all permissions.

The standard password for SYSDBA is: masterkey

The SYSDBA password should be changed immediately following installation of a productive system.

Linux server

When installing on Linux systems a random password is generated. This can be found in the SYSDBA.password file in the Firebird root directory.

A new SYSDBA password can be assigned in the shell script bin/

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Network integration TCP/IP

Following a standard installation, the Firebird service listens to port 3050/tcp. This can be altered if wished in the firebird.conf. It is also usual procedure to add the following entry in the services file:

 gds_db    3050/tcp

This specification also needs to be adjusted accordingly.

As the service name, gsd_db, is for InterBase databases, another service name needs to be defined if InterBase and Firebird installations are to run in parallel. This service name also needs to be specified correspondingly in the firebird.conf and the services file (our proposal: firebirdsql).

  • Location of the services file in Windows: \Windows\system32\drivers\etc\services
  • Location of the services file in Linux: /etc/services

The service or demon needs to be restarted following any alterations to firebird.conf.

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The security.fdb database, stored in the Firebird root directory, is responsible for user administration.

SYSDBA always has all permissions and rights. The user who created the database is the database owner and also has all permissions and rights for that database.

Users can be administrated using the GSEC tool (refer to Administration tools)

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